Iron is one of the most important minerals in the human body. If you’ve transitioned to a plant-based diet, or are thinking about it, you’re probably wondering what plant-based foods are high in iron?
It’s a question a lot of people worry about, and one you’ll probably get asked about a lot by people curious to your way of eating.
In this article we’re not only going to look at plant-based foods high in iron, we’re also going to look at what exactly iron does in your body and why it’s such an important mineral.
We’ll look at how much iron you should be consuming, what affects absorption rates, and why too much iron is not necessarily a good thing.
By the end of this article, you’ll feel much more confident in understanding where to get iron from, particularly if you’re on a plant-based diet. However, even if you’ve yet to make the transition, the information you’ll read will help you to make sure you’re getting enough iron.
As you’ll see, while an abundant mineral present in many real whole foods, iron deficiencies are still one of the top nutrient deficiencies we see in the world today, in any diet.
Why Do We Need Iron?
To understand why these deficiencies occur we must first understand why iron is so crucial to our health.
Iron is a component of both hemoglobin and myoglobin. Its primary role is to facilitate the production of hemoglobin which is a protein that attaches to red blood cells and carries oxygen throughout the body.
Hemoglobin is found in our blood, and myoglobin is found in our muscles. In myoglobin, iron delivers oxygen to the working muscles.
The human body needs iron to convert food to energy and carry out the metabolic process. Each hemoglobin protein carries oxygen molecules to the tissue and then releases it to the cell and various organs in the body. It does so in order to carry out the metabolic process.
Iron serves some vital functions 1 in the body such as:
- Transferring oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
- Iron provides oxygen to muscles.
- It supports metabolism
- Iron is part of many enzyme systems.
- It is a key element in the production of cellular energy.
- Iron is also a key element in immune system functioning.
- It is key element in detoxification.
- Iron is a key element in the mental processes surrounding learning and behavior.
- It is necessary for growth, development, and normal cellular functioning.
- Iron is required to synthesis of some hormones and connective tissue.
- It also promotes healthy pregnancy, increased energy, and better athletic performance.
- Iron is also needed to make new cells, hormones, neurotransmitters, and amino acids.
According to Brenda Davis, RD and Vesanto Melina, MS, RD, the body is continuously breaking down red blood cells and building new ones. This efficiently recycles the iron reclaimed from spent red blood cells. However, each day tiny amounts of iron are lost in cells that have been shed from our skin and from the inner lining of the intestine; these losses must be replaced from food or supplements.
While iron is a crucial mineral that’s required for many functions within our body, it’s important to note that too much iron may increase the risk of liver cancer and diabetes. So always strive to get iron from real whole foods and consult your doctor before taking any iron supplement. 2 3
Excessive amounts of this pro-oxidant mineral in supplements are best avoided. A diet that features good plant sources of iron, combined with vitamin C rich foods, is a much better choice for long-term maintenance, once an iron deficiency has been resolved. 4
How Do We Become Iron Deficient?
Iron is naturally present and abundant in many of the real whole foods we consume daily. Additionally, many of the packaged cereals, pastas and breads we purchase at supermarkets are fortified with iron.
Yet despite this many of us still become iron deficient.
Why is this?
An iron deficiency can arise for several reasons and we’ll look at some of the most common causes below
Menstruating women and frequent blood donors tend to be more at risk of having lower iron levels.
If you like to donate blood regularly, it’s a good idea to keep a check on your iron intake. Blood donations can deplete your iron stores, so ensuring you have good sources of iron in your diet will help you replenish your stores.
Low hemoglobin in this particular situation is usually only a short lived problem. Which is typically remedied by consuming some iron-rich foods.
If you’re told that you can’t donate blood because of low hemoglobin, the Mayo Clinic suggest a trip to your doctor just to ensure everything is ok and any address any concerns.
For menstruating women, Iron levels are a continuous concern. Every time you lose blood, you also lose some iron.
Women with heavy periods are at risk of iron deficiency anemia because they lose blood during menstruation. A lack of iron can lead to iron deficiency anaemia which can be quite common in female athletes.
According to Brenda Davis, RD and Vesanti Melina, MS, RD the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among youths and adults is estimated to be at 2-5% among females and 1-2% among males.
A lack of iron in diet
Iron is an abundant mineral found in real whole foods. Many store bought goods such as cereals and bread will also be fortified with iron – just check the nutritional information on the back of the package.
Over time your body can become iron deficient, If you consume too little iron. Vegetarians and Vegans,or anyone that doesn’t consume meat regularly in their diet tend to be at a higher risk of developing iron deficiency anemia.
Also people on 100% whole food plant based diet who typically do not consume any processed foods, such as iron fortified cereals and pasta, depend solely on getting iron from real, whole foods.
Plants contain iron in the form of non-heme iron. This form of iron is absorbed in a different manner than heme iron.
This simply means that when living a plant based lifestyle having knowledge is key. You need to be aware of the iron rich plant foods that you’re consuming daily, and how to maximise their absorption.
It is by no means a complicated process. It’s actually as simple as eating your iron rich foods with some vitamin c rich foods. For example combining citrus fruits and dark leafy vegetables.
Although total iron content in a meal is an important consideration, it is crucial to appreciate the overall composition of the meal is of far greater significance for iron nutrition than the amount of total iron provided 7.
Little things like avoiding tea and coffee around meal times can also really help absorption.
In studies about the effects of ascorbic acid on iron absorption, 100 milligrams of ascorbic acid increased iron absorption from a specific meal by 4.14 times. 8 9. We’ll examine maximising iron absorption in more detail later on.
The key takeaway
As overall meal composition is as important as total iron content of a meal, it is important to promote the consumption of foods that enhance iron absorption, while limiting the consumption of foods that act as inhibitors10.
Foods that enhance absorption of iron typically contain high levels of vitamins A, vitamin C, and folic acid; this includes various fruits, vegetables, and tubers.
Phytates, found in cereal grains, tannins and other polyphenols found primarily in tea and coffee, and calcium from milk and milk products should be avoided where possible to limit the inhibition of iron absorption. It is also found in foods such as yogurt, cheese, tofu, broccoli, almonds, figs, and turnip greens for example.
Calcium can inhibit the absorption of both non-heme and heme iron. Where 50 milligrams or less of calcium has little if any effect on iron absorption, calcium in amounts of 300-600 milligrams inhibit the absorption of heme iron similarly to nonheme iron.
An inability to absorb iron due to health issues
Some medical conditions, like having inadequate stomach acid or lack of intrinsic factor, may affect your ability to absorb iron. Furthermore, those with celiac disease, crohn’s disease, hormone imbalance, or autoimmune diseases may also have issues in absorbing iron.
This is because iron from food is absorbed into your bloodstream from your small intestine. Some of the issues listed above can affect your ability to absorb nutrients, such as iron, from digested foods. This is also a factor for people who have had part of their small intestine removed or bypassed surgically.
Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) is also a medical issue on the rise and studies have shown approximately one-third of IBS patients also suffer from recurrent anemia. 14
It is not uncommon for pregnant women to experience iron deficiency anemia.
This can be attributed to the need for higher amounts of iron to help maintain a mother’s own iron stores because of the increase in blood volume. On top of this, more iron is required to be a source of hemoglobin for the growing fetus.
However, if you are experiencing symptoms, anemia can be a symptom of any of the following:
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Folate-deficiency anemia
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
It’s always safer to consult with a doctor if you’re feeling any symptoms relating to anemia.
The small intestine does not readily absorb large amounts of iron. Iron absorption also depends on a range of factors.
The source of iron and other components in your diet will have an additional affect your ability to absorb iron. So too will your gastrointestinal health, use of medications or supplements and presence of iron promoters, such as vitamin C.
These are just some of the reasons that we may suffer from insufficient levels of iron in their body. Always consult your doctor before deciding to increase your iron intake or take an iron supplement.
How much iron do I need?
A diet rich in real whole foods should provide you with all the iron you need.
The RDAs for vegetarians are 1.8 times higher than for people who eat meat. This is because heme iron from meat is more bioavailable than nonheme iron from plant-based foods, and meat, poultry, and seafood increase the absorption of nonheme iron.
The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for elemental iron depends on a person’s age and sex.
|Birth to 6 months||0.27 mg*||0.27 mg*|
|7–12 months||11 mg||11 mg|
|1–3 years||7 mg||7 mg|
|4–8 years||10 mg||10 mg|
|9–13 years||8 mg||8 mg|
|14–18 years||11 mg||15 mg||27 mg||10 mg|
|19–50 years||8 mg||18 mg||27 mg||9 mg|
|51+ years||8 mg||8 mg|
What are some of the symptoms of an iron deficiency?
It’s important to note iron deficiency anemia is no more prevalent among plant-based eaters than non-plant-based eaters. However, the symptoms of an iron deficiency should be know by everyone.
Initially, iron deficiency anemia can be so mild that it goes unnoticed. But as the body becomes more deficient in iron and anemia worsens, the signs and symptoms intensify.
These signs and symptoms may include:
- Chest pain
- Pale skin
- Hair loss
- Fast heartbeat
- Shortness of breath
- Sore Muscles
- Cold hands/feet
- Inflammation or soreness of your tongue
- Brittle nails
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or starch
- Poor appetite (especially in infants and children)
We’ll look at some of these symptoms in more detail below.
A lack of energy and tiredness is perhaps one the more common signals for a possible iron deficiency. It’s even more noticeable when you’ve had a goods night sleep but you’re still feeling fatigued.
As discussed above, iron is used to make hemoglobin, the material in red blood cells that carry oxygen to the entire body. When you’re iron deficient your blood cells take a hit—meaning less oxygen reaches your tissues. When there is this lack of oxygen, our bodies can be deprived of the important energy to fuel us during our busy day. Not only will you feel fatigued and tired, but iron deficiency can also bring on symptoms of irritability, weakness and an inability to focus like you once did.
Shortness of breath
Less oxygen reaches different parts of your body when iron levels are low. When the body’s oxygen level is low it will cause shortness of breath no matter how deeply you breathe. When your blood cells are deprived of oxygen easy activities like walking can leave you gasping for breath.
When you’re deficient in iron, it is common to have a pale or washed out appearance. Due to a low iron level, your body is unable to manufacture sufficient hemoglobin. It’s the hemoglobin that gives your blood its reddish colour and your skin it’s rosy colour.
As your iron deficiency worsens your skin begins to lose it’s normal colour and becomes pale. But it’s not just your skin tone that can be affected by low iron levels. Your lips, gums, and even the bottom of your eyelids can become less red.
If your nails look yellow, fragile and brittle it may be a possible sign that your deficient in iron. Along with brittle nails, a concave or a spoon shaped depression in the nails can indicate an insufficient iron level in the body.
Iron deficiency is just one of the possible causes of hair loss. A low iron level sends your body into survival mode. During which it channels oxygen to support vital functions as opposed to less important functions like hair growth. This is especially true when this deficiency progresses into iron deficiency anemia since it can lead to hair loss in both men and women.
Again, due to the bodies lack of sufficient levels of oxygen, your body will supply this oxygen to support the most vital functions of the body which generally does not include keeping the hair healthy, strong and intact. Not only is hair loss possible, but the overall look of your hair can decrease, while becoming brittle and weak.
Having frequent headaches can also be another symptom of a low iron status. When you’re deficient in iron, your body will work to prioritize getting important oxygen to your brain, before distributing to the rest of your bodily tissues. This lack of oxygen can cause arteries in the brain to swell, resulting in unwanted headaches and pain.
When you don’t have enough iron your muscles are unable to recover properly. If your regular morning jog is causing you more pain than usual you may be iron deficient.
Decreased oxygen levels in the body, along with low levels of iron, can negatively affect your nervous system and increase anxiety. On top of this, low iron levels can cause your heart to race, which can increase feelings of fight and flight. These anxious feelings can come on even when there is nothing particularly to cause you increased anxiousness or stress.
Too much of a good thing…
If you believe you might be suffering from an iron deficiency, even a small one, your first port of call should be a visit with your doctor. Here you can have simple tests done if needed and discuss whether iron supplements should be part of your diet.
This is because Iron is one mineral where taking too much can have detrimental effects on your body.
For example, taking too much iron at one time can lead to nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In extreme cases, iron overdoses can cause organ failure, internal bleeding, coma, seizure, and even death.
The symptoms of an iron deficiency are shared with some other common issues, which is why it’s important to consult your doctor.
It’s always recommended to achieve your optimal iron intake through diet, rather than supplements. In this way, not only are you minimising the risks, you’re benefiting from all the other nutrients in the food as well.
Heme and Non-heme Iron
There are two different types of iron: heme and non-heme.
Plants and iron-fortified foods contain non-heme iron only, whereas meat, seafood, and poultry contain both heme and non-heme iron. 16 Plant-based sources of iron include beans, nuts, soy, vegetables, and fortified grains.
Non-heme and heme iron are absorbed via different pathways.
Heme iron is more easily absorbed by the body. Non-heme iron on the other hand requires that the body take multiple steps to absorb it and generally absorbs a lower percentage of iron.
The bioavailability of heme iron from animal sources can be up to 40%. Non-heme iron from plant-based sources, however, has a bioavailability of between 2 and 20%.17 For this reason, the RDA for vegetarians is 1.8 times higher than for those who eat meat to make up for the lower absorption level from plant-based foods. 18
However, this does not indicate non-heme is an inferior form of iron. This in fact is by no means the case.
According to Brenda Davis, RD and Vesanti Melina, MS, RD relying on non-heme iron actually provides the body with more control over iron absorption efficiency. It does so by allowing the body to alter uptakes of iron as needed.
For example, if our stores of iron are low, the body will absorb more iron from plant foods; likewise if stores are high, the intestines can absorb a lower percentage of non-heme iron. However, we still need to keep in mind the importance of food combination and preparation factors.
The heme form of iron found in meat and blood tends to be more readily absorbed- even when the body doesn’t need any iron. Once iron has been absorbed, the body has limited mechanisms for ridding itself of any excess.
Because iron is a pro-oxidant, too much in the body may damage DNA and other molecules.
New research also indicates that high iron intakes and a burden of excess iron in the body have been associated with alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, arthritis, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colorectal and other cancers19. To avoid iron overload, consuming the non-heme form found in plants is recommended.
Iron on a Whole Food Plant based diet
Those following a whole food plant based diet, or a vegan diet, tend to actually consume more iron than those following the more western style of eating. Research has shown vegans have average iron intakes that are similar than those of non vegetarian and higher than the RDA. Studies have shown vegan women in the US have average intakes of around 22-23 mg iron daily.
However non-heme iron is not absorbed as easily, especially where there is a high level of phytates or other inhibitors in the diet. Therefore the recommended daily intake of iron is 1.8 times higher for those who do not eat meat.
To improve iron absorption, Brenda Davis provides the following tips:
- Eat vitamin C-rich foods: Consuming 50 mg of Vitamin C with iron rich foods can boost absorption 3 – 6 times. This is because iron is converted from a ferric form to a more readily absorbed ferrous form. The citric acid in citrus fruits also enhances iron absorption. The beta-carotene in yellow, red, and orange foods also aids iron absorption. 20 21
- Avoid coffee and tea with meals: Tannins in tea can reduce iron absorption by 50-90% .22 She suggests avoid drinking tea with your meals and leave it at least an hour or 2 afterward until you have a cup. Also cocoa and red wine reduce iron absorption.
- Soak, sprout and ferment: Phytates, which are naturally found in plant foods, can reduce mineral availability. Soaking, sprouting, yeasting, and fermenting grains and legumes can improve iron absorption by lowering the amount of phytates. It also improves absorption of the other minerals. 23
- Use a cast iron pan: Foods prepared in a cast iron pan tend to provide two to three times more iron as those prepared in non-iron cookware. 24
- Eat Iron rich food:
- Legumes such as lentils, black beans, lima beans, chickpeas and soybeans. Beans and lentils typical provide around 3-6mg of iron per 1 cup.
- Whole-grains and pseudo-grains such as amaranth, quinoa, kamut, spelt, and fortified grains.
- Seeds and nuts such as cashews, pine nuts, almonds and brazil nuts.
- Vegetables such as mushrooms, peas, string beans and green leafy vegetables.
- Fruits such as avocado, prune juice and dried fruit.
- Blackstrap molasses
All menstruating women should increase their absorption by combining foods rich in Iron and vitamin C in the same meals. Always check with your doctor, or registered dietician, before adding an iron supplement to your diet.
Maximising absorption of iron
The percentage of non-heme iron absorbed from plant foods varies. The amount absorbed depends on variables such as food preparation methods, the body’s needs, as well as the food and beverage combinations eaten.
Brenda suggests consuming vitamin-C-rich foods alongside non-heme sources of iron can dramatically increase iron absorption. Consuming 150 ml of orange juice containing 75 mg of vitamin C has been shown to increase the absorption of iron from foods eaten at the same time by a factor of four. Other studies show 50mg of vitamin C to enhance iron absorption sixfold.
Eating 3/4 cup (185 ml) of any of the following provides 50 mg of vitamin C:
- brussels sprouts
- collard greens
- bell peppers
- snow peas
- citrus fruits and juices
- 1/4 cup sweet red bell pepper
- Vegetables remain about 85% of their vitamin C when microwaved
- 70% when steamed
- 50% when boiled
- A large baked potato retains 30 mg of vitamin C after baking
Brenda further states that losses will vary with cooking time and temperature. Onions and garlic can increase the availability of iron and zinc from grains and legumes by up to 50%. 25
Foods High in Iron
The following is a list of options when looking to consume iron in plant based foods. Here you’ll find the amount of iron available per serving. Keep in mind the combination and preparation methods mentioned above and start thinking about the delicious meals you can prepare using the ingredients below.
|Legumes||Lentils, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||3.5|
|Pea sprouts, raw||1 cup (250ml)||2.9|
|Soybeans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||4.7|
|Tempeh, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.4|
|Black turtle beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.8|
|White beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||3.5|
|Soymilk, fortified||1/2 cup (125ml)||.5-1.0|
|Adzuki beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.4|
|black-eyed peas, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.3|
|Chickpeas, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.5|
|Edamame, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.8|
|Great northern beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2|
|Kidney beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.1|
|Lentil sprouts, raw||1 cup (250ml)||2.6|
|Navy beans, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.3|
|Peanuts||1/4 cup (60ml)||1.7|
|Split peas, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.3|
|Pinto beans||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.9|
|Grains||Amaranth, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||2.6|
|Wheat sprout, raw||1 cup (250ml)||2.4|
|Kamut, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.8|
|Bread, rye||slice 30g||0.8|
|Bread, whole wheat||slice, 30g||0.7|
|Quinoa, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.4|
|Spelt, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.7|
|Whole Wheat pasta/spaghetti, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||0.8|
|Pearl barley, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.1|
|Buckwheat groats, kasha, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||0.7|
|Millet, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||0.6|
|Oatmeal, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||1.1|
|Brown rice, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||0.4|
|Wild rice, cooked||1/2 cup (125ml)||0.5|
|Sweets and oils||Dark chocolate, 45-59% cacao||60g||4.8|
|Dark chocolate, 70-85% cacao||60g||7.1|
|Nuts and seeds||Almond butter||30ml||1.1|
|Almonds||1/4 c (60ml)||1.4|
|Brazil nuts||1/4 c (60ml)||0.9|
|Chia seeds||1/4 c (60ml)||3.3|
|Flaxseeds, ground||1/4 c (60ml)||3.2|
|Hemp Seeds||1/4 c (60ml)||4.9|
|Hazelnuts||1/4 c (60ml)||1.6|
|Pine nuts||1/4 c (60ml)||1.9|
|Pistachio nuts||1/4 c (60ml)||1.2|
|Poppy seeds||1/4 c (60ml)||3.3|
|Pumpkin seeds||1/4 c (60ml)||2.9|
|Sesame seeds, hulled||1/4 c (60ml)||2.4|
|Sesame seeds, whole||1/4 c (60ml)||5.3|
|Sunflower seed butter||30ml||1.3|
|Sunflower seeds, hulled||1/4 c (60ml)||1.9|
|Walnuts, english||1/4 c (60ml)||0.9|
|Apricots, dried||1/4 c (60ml)||0.9|
|Blackberries||1/2 c (125ml)||0.5|
|Blueberries||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Cantaloupe||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Coconut, dried||1/4 c (60ml)||0.8|
|Figs, dried||1/4 c (60ml)||0.8|
|Grapefruit juice||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Grapes||1/2 c (125ml)||0.1|
|Guava||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Honeydew melon||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Loganberries, frozen||1/2 c (125ml)||0.5|
|Orange juice||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Payaya, cubed||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Pineapple, diced||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Plum||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Prunes||1/4 c (60ml)||0.4|
|Raisins, seedless||1/4 c (60ml)||0.8|
|Raspberries||1/2 c (125ml)||0.4|
|Strawberries, whole||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Watermelon||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Vegetables||Arugula, raw chopped||1 c (250ml)||0.3|
|Asparagus, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.9|
|Avocado, all varieties||medium||1.1|
|Avocado, all varieties, pureed||1/2 c (125ml)||0.7|
|Basil, fresh, chopped||1 c (250ml)||1.4|
|Beans, green/yellow, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.6|
|Beet greens, raw||1 c (250ml)||1|
|Beets, sliced||1/2 c (125ml)||0.6|
|Bok choy, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.9|
|Broccoli, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.6|
|Brussel sprouts, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||1|
|Cabbage, green, raw||1 c (250ml)||0.4|
|Cabbage, red, raw||1 c (250ml)||0.7|
|Carrots, chopped, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Carrot juice||1/2 c (125ml)||0.6|
|Cauliflower, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Celery, diced, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.1|
|Collard greens, chopped raw||1 c (250ml)||0.1|
|Cucumber, peeled, sliced, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Cucumber with peel, sliced, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Dandelion greens, raw||1 c (250ml)||1.8|
|Jerusalem artichoke, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||2.7|
|Kale, raw||1 c (250ml)||1.2|
|Kelp, chopped, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||1.2|
|Leeks, chopped, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||1|
|Lettuce, raw, butterhead,||1 c (250ml)||0.7|
|Lettuce, iceberg, raw, chopped||1 c (250ml)||0.3|
|Lettuce, romaine, raw, chopped||1 c (250ml)||0.5|
|Mushrooms||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Mustard greens||1 c (250ml)||0.9|
|Olives, black, canned||1/2 c (125ml)||2.3|
|Onions, green, chopped raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.8|
|Onions, red/yellow/white, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Parsley, raw||1 c (250ml)||4|
|Parsnips, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.5|
|Peas, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||1.3|
|Snow pea pods, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.7|
|Bell pepper, green/red, chopped raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Peppers, hot green chile,||1/2 c (125ml)||1|
|Peppers, hot red chile,||1/2 c (125ml)||0.8|
|Potato with skin, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Radishes, sliced, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Spirulina seaweed, dried||15ml||2|
|Spinach, chopped,raw||1 c (250ml)||0.9|
|Spinach, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||3.4|
|Squash, all varieties summer, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.4|
|Squash, all varieties winter, baked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.5|
|Butternut squash, baked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.6|
|Sweet potato, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||1.2|
|Tomato, chopped, raw||1/2 c (125ml)||0.3|
|Roma tomato, raw||medium||0.2|
|Sun-dried tomato||1/4 c (60ml)||1.3|
|Turnip cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
|Yam, cooked||1/2 c (125ml)||0.7|
|Zucchini, chopped,||1/2 c (125ml)||0.2|
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